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Human Resources Specialist (Policy) — Expert / Managerial, GS-13/14/15

Career Stage
Career Stage Flowchart
Flowchart Description: Employees with any area of expertise relevant to HR Policy at GS 12 or higher may advance to the GS 12 Specialist Level and then to the GS 13 Expert Level. From here employees may advance to the GS 14 Expert, then to the GS 15 expert, or to the GS 14 Supervisory and then the GS 15 Supervisory Level. After GS 15 at any Level, employees advance to SES, but some employees may advance to SES from the GS 14 supervisory Level, although this is less common.
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General Competencies
General Competencies
Understanding the Competency Information

General Competencies Proficiency Level
GS-13 GS-14 GS-15
Attention to Detail: Is thorough when performing work and conscientious about attending to detail. 4 4 4
Client Engagement/Change Management: Knowledge of the impact of change on people, processes, procedures, leadership, and organizational culture; knowledge of change management principles, strategies, and techniques required for effectively planning, implementing, and evaluating change in the organization. 3 4 4
Creative Thinking: Uses imagination to develop new insights into situations and applies innovative solutions to problems; designs new methods where established methods and procedures are inapplicable or are unavailable. 4 4 5
Customer Service: Works with clients and customers (that is, any individuals who use or receive the services or products that your work unit produces, including the general public, individuals who work in the agency, other agencies, or organizations outside the Government) to assess their needs, provide information or assistance, resolve their problems, or satisfy their expectations; knows about available products and services; is committed to providing quality products and services. 4 4 5
Decision Making: Makes sound, well-informed, and objective decisions; perceives the impact and implications of decisions; commits to action, even in uncertain situations, to accomplish organizational goals; causes change. 4 4 5
Flexibility: Is open to change and new information; adapts behavior or work methods in response to new information, changing conditions, or unexpected obstacles; effectively deals with ambiguity. 4 4 4
Influencing/Negotiating: Persuades others to accept recommendations, cooperate, or change their behavior; works with others towards an agreement; negotiates to find mutually acceptable solutions. 4 4 4
Information Management: Identifies a need for and knows where or how to gather information; organizes and maintains information or information management systems. 4 4 4
Integrity/Honesty: Contributes to maintaining the integrity of the organization; displays high standards of ethical conduct and understands the impact of violating these standards on an organization, self, and others; is trustworthy. 4 4 5
Interpersonal Skills: Shows understanding, friendliness, courtesy, tact, empathy, concern, and politeness to others; develops and maintains effective relationships with others; may include effectively dealing with individuals who are difficult, hostile, or distressed; relates well to people from varied backgrounds and different situations; is sensitive to cultural diversity, race, gender, disabilities, and other individual differences. 4 4 5
Legal, Government, and Jurisprudence: Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, legal practices and documents, Government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, Government organization and functions, and the democratic political process. 4 4 5
Oral Communication: Expresses information (for example, ideas or facts) to individuals or groups effectively, taking into account the audience and nature of the information (for example, technical, sensitive, controversial); makes clear and convincing oral presentations; listens to others, attends to nonverbal cues, and responds appropriately. 4 4 5
Organizational Awareness: Knows the organization's mission and functions, and how its social, political, and technological systems work and operates effectively within them; this includes the programs, policies, procedures, rules, and regulations of the organization. 4 4 4
Planning and Evaluating: Organizes work, sets priorities, and determines resource requirements; determines short- or long-term goals and strategies to achieve them; coordinates with other organizations or parts of the organization to accomplish goals; monitors progress and evaluates outcomes. 4 4 4
Problem Solving: Identifies problems; determines accuracy and relevance of information; uses sound judgment to generate and evaluate alternatives, and to make recommendations. 4 4 4
Project Management: Knowledge of the principles, methods, or tools for developing, scheduling, coordinating, and managing projects and resources, including monitoring and inspecting costs, work, and contractor performance. 3 4 4
Reading: Understands and interprets written material, including technical material, rules, regulations, instructions, reports, charts, graphs, or tables; applies what is learned from written material to specific situations. 4 4 5
Reasoning: Identifies rules, principles, or relationships that explain facts, data, or other information; analyzes information and makes correct inferences or draws accurate conclusions. 4 4 5
Self-Management: Sets well-defined and realistic personal goals; displays a high level of initiative, effort, and commitment towards completing assignments in a timely manner; works with minimal supervision; is motivated to achieve; demonstrates responsible behavior. 4 4 4
Stress Tolerance: Deals calmly and effectively with high stress situations (for example, tight deadlines, hostile individuals, emergency situations, dangerous situations). 4 4 4
Teamwork: Encourages and facilitates cooperation, pride, trust, and group identity; fosters commitment and team spirit; works with others to achieve goals. 4 4 4
Technical Competence: Uses knowledge that is acquired through formal training or extensive on-the-job experience to perform one's job; works with, understands, and evaluates technical information related to the job; advises others on technical issues. 4 4 5
Workforce Planning: Knowledge of HR concepts, principles, and practices related to determining workload projections and current and future competency gaps to align human capital with organizational goals. 3 4 4
Writing: Recognizes or uses correct English grammar, punctuation, and spelling; communicates information (for example, facts, ideas, or messages) in a succinct and organized manner; produces written information, which may include technical material that is appropriate for the intended audience. 4 4 4
Technical Competencies
Technical Competencies
Understanding the Competency Information

Technical Competencies Proficiency Level
GS-13 GS-14 GS-15
Human Resources Policy: Knowledge of how to develop effective human resource management policies and strategies to ensure the agency is able to recruit, select, develop, train, and manage a high-quality, productive workforce in accordance with merit system principles. 4 4 4
Supervisory Competencies
HR Specialists at the Expert level may either be specialists or supervisors. Supervisory competencies are determined by the hiring agency. OPM developed guidance for agencies to help them determine requirements for supervisory positions including supervisory competencies. For more information on OPM’s Supervisory Qualification Guide, click on
Critical Developmental Activities
Critical Developmental Activities
Understanding the Critical Developmental Activities

Developmental Activities for Expert or Supervisory Positions
To Strengthen General Competencies
  • Lead a team working on multiple projects.
  • Act as a subject matter expert (SME).
  • Acquire resources or support from outside organization for a project.
  • Mentor others informally or formally, providing technical and career guidance.
  • Share knowledge of lessons learned with your team and management.
  • Serve as an advisor to teams working on high visibility projects.
  • Develop relationships with customers to understand the customer base.
  • Expand your professional network (including contacts with people in industry, academia, and other relevant organizations) through joint projects, participation in workshops, memberships in professional and trade associations, and internal and external customer relationships.
  • Present invited talks or papers at technical conferences.
  • Maintain awareness of trends and state-of-the-art in your field.
  • Interview someone who is faced with pressure to make decisions constantly. Ask him or her to describe the criteria he/she uses to evaluate the quality of potential decisions, the methods/techniques he/she uses to make decisions, and the lessons he/she has learned about thinking through decisions.
  • Evaluate proposals with the guidance of senior staff members.
  • The next time you face a major policy or procedure change, find a way to access a broad range of ideas. Pose difficult challenges and ask for others’ thoughts or related experience.
  • Participate on a workforce planning team.
To Strengthen Technical Competencies
  • Develop a new policy on a controversial and/or complex topic after researching existing policies, statues, or laws.
  • Brief leadership on policy options after researching existing policies, statutes, or laws.
  • Design and conduct comprehensive Human Resource studies (e.g., market analysis, metrics).
  • Develop recommendations for legislation or legislative inquires to meet agency needs.
  • Develop, interpret, and analyze proposals or reports.
  • Stay abreast of any changes in OPM, legislation, or federal regulations so you can apply changes to agency policy.
  • Serve as an expert and consultant to your internal agency and external customers.
  • Take initiative to improve existing policies, or create new policies that have impact on the department or agency.

Additional Developmental Activities for Supervisory Positions Only
  • Find an opportunity to clearly communicate your vision and the values of your organization or work group, along with the message that you expect people to excel.
  • Gain commitment from necessary players and maintain their support throughout a change process.
  • Pay attention to advances or changes in technology. Look for ways that new or different technology could improve your work processes or the quality and/or efficiency of your work.
  • Identify people who hold similar positions to yours. Choose one or two who share common job concerns or problems, and meet with them informally to ask for ideas on resolving problems and expediting work flow.
  • Establish contact with other federal agencies for benchmarking opportunities, lessons learned, and innovative approaches for accomplishing objectives.
  • Contribute to processes that create and support a diverse environment (e.g. hiring and training).
Job Tasks
Job Tasks
Specialist or Supervisory Positions GS-13 GS-14 GS-15
Conducts special studies (e.g., veteran hiring, persons with disabilities, and occupational reviews) and provides briefings and recommendations to leadership on results. checkmark checkmark checkmark
Analyzes policies and procedures and makes recommendations to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of HR programs throughout the agency. checkmark checkmark checkmark
Provides policy/technical guidance on highly sensitive and/or complex issues to HR staff about how to interpret, use, and implement current policy information and other various sources (e.g., regulations and statutes). checkmark checkmark checkmark
Develops new policies and procedures for a variety of HR topics. checkmark checkmark checkmark
Briefs senior management officials and employees on new policies or changes to existing policy. checkmark checkmark checkmark
Serves as an agency representative for program area of responsibility. checkmark checkmark checkmark
Leads and/or participates in accountability reviews and program audits to identify and recommend actions. Addresses findings, training needs and requirements, and possible impacts to agency programs. checkmark checkmark checkmark
Provides technical guidance and consultation to senior management and HR staff in field and other agency components on a range of specialized personnel functions. Demonstrates competency to understand and explain interrelationships and implications between HR technical areas. checkmark checkmark checkmark
Influences supervisors and employees to understand the rationale, value, application, and importance of the policy or procedure to ensure compliance. checkmark checkmark checkmark
Provides oversight of policy initiatives so that policies clearly support and foster short and long term mission accomplishment. checkmark checkmark checkmark
Promotes policy that links agency goals and objectives to performance management standards. checkmark checkmark checkmark
Contributes to agency’s strategic plan. checkmark checkmark checkmark
Develops legislation and provides recommendations to Congress on legislation. checkmark checkmark checkmark
Supervisory Positions Only GS-13 GS-14 GS-15
Oversees annual, multiyear, or similar types of long-range work plans or schedules for in-service or contracted work. checkmark checkmark N/A
Ensures that the goals or objectives for area of responsibility (e.g., division, program area, function, etc.) are met and determines goals and objectives that require additional emphasis. checkmark checkmark N/A
Determines best approach for solving budget shortages or other issues. checkmark checkmark N/A
Exercises significant responsibility in dealing with officials of other units or organizations. checkmark checkmark N/A
Assures equity among units, groups, teams of performance standards and rating techniques developed by subordinates. checkmark checkmark N/A
Makes decisions on work problems presented by subordinate supervisors. checkmark checkmark checkmark
Serves as the senior HR advisor for a multi-mission agency engaged in research, development, test, evaluation, and maintenance functions on a national and/or international scale. N/A N/A checkmark
Integrates the interests of key internal and external stakeholders, including Congress, Administration and the public, when developing strategic business plans. N/A N/A checkmark
Formulates new HR concepts, principles, and methods. N/A N/A checkmark
Advises top agency management officials on the development and implementation of innovations related to any HR technical area. N/A N/A checkmark
Counsels top agency officials who may appear before Congressional committees and the national media concerning the agency’s HR program. N/A N/A checkmark
Training Areas
Training Areas
Understanding the Training Areas

  • HR Policy Fundamentals
  • Federal Regulations and Statutes
  • Program Audits
  • Accountability Reviews
  • Conducting Human Resource Studies
  • Data Analysis and Presentation
  • Strategic Planning
  • Workforce Analysis
  • Mentoring Employees
  • Improving Employee Performance and Productivity
  • Conducting Employee Performance Appraisals in Accordance with Agency Systems
  • Identifying and Assisting Employees with Unacceptable Performance
  • Training Individuals Making Career Transitions (e.g., non-supervisory to manager, or manager to executive)
Please note that this information is for development purposes only and does not address position requirements or your eligibility for a particular job. For information about Governmentwide qualifications requirements, please refer to Additionally, there may be position-specific requirements, including specialized experience. Your supervisor can provide more information on these additional requirements.

Policy Specialist — SES
The Executive Core Qualifications (ECQs) define the competencies needed to build a Federal corporate culture that drives for results, serves customers, and builds successful teams and coalitions within and outside the organization. The Executive Core Qualifications are required for entry to the Senior Executive Service and are used by many departments and agencies in selection, performance management, and leadership development for management and executive positions. OPM's Guide to the Senior Executive Service Qualifications provides detailed information on the Executive Core Qualifications.

For additional information about SES competencies go to: